Behavioral contrast and responding as a function of reinforcer value by Richard Howard Ettinger

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  • Behaviorism (Psychology),
  • Psychology, Comparative.

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Statementby Richard Howard Ettinger.
The Physical Object
Paginationix, 47 leaves ;
Number of Pages47
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL16500442M

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Jensen C, Fallon D. Behavioral aftereffects of reinforcement and its omission as a function of reinforcement magnitude. J Exp Anal Behav. May; 19 (3)– [PMC free article] Keller K. The role of elicited responding in behavioral contrast.


Contrast and undermatching as a function of reinforcer duration and quality during multiple schedules June Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 35(3) reinforcement may assume multiple functions in relation to the reinforcer (Lattal, ).

A truer test of behavioral contrast of responding maintained by delayed reinforce-ment requires eliminating the confounding effects of the signal. Thus, the present ex-periment examined the occurrence of behavioral contrast when responding was.

In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence applied that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent strengthening effect may be measured as a higher frequency of behavior (e.g., pulling a lever more frequently), longer duration (e.g., pulling a lever for longer periods of time), greater magnitude (e.g.

Behavioral contrast. prior experience with a lower valued reinforcer increases reinforcer value (positive behavioral contrast), and prior experience with a higher valued reinforcer reduces reinforcer value (negative behavioral contrast) decrease in the value of a reinforcer as a function of how long one has to wait to obtain it.

Fixed. Behavioral contrast as a function of the duration of an immediately preceding period of extinction. J Exp Anal Behav. Nov; 16 (3)– [PMC free article] Wilton RN, Gay RA.

Behavioral contrast in one component of a multiple schedule as a function of the reinforcement conditions operating in the following component. J Exp Anal Behav. • A phenomenon in which responding in the presence of one stimulus changes as a result of a change in the reinforcement conditions for another stimulus.

• There are many theories of behavioral contrast including the behavioral reallocation hypothesis, the reinforcer habituation/satiation hypothesis, Herrnsteinand Williams responding.

Theinterval is terminated by presenting a reinforcer after t seconds of no re-sponding. Such a schedule involves differential reinforcement of behavior other than key pecking.

It may be called DROt, where t is the interval of no responding necessary for reinforcement. In these experiments, the value oft was between 50 and 75 seconds. In negative contrast, the response decreases for a less-favorable reward after being exposed to a reinforcer which is clearly more-favorable.

BEHAVIORAL CONTRAST: "In behavioral contrast, the rate of responding to stimulus in one setting changes when the condition of reinforcement in the other setting gets modified.". The results suggest that the form of the variation in k is a predictable function of reinforcer value.

To obtain the scale of reinforcer value, Equation 4 was fitted to the response and reinforcement rate data from Phase 1. The fits were excellent, accounting for. Professionals in the field of ABA must understand some basic facts about reinforcement and punishment to create effective behavior change programs.

First, there are important differences between positive and negative reinforcement and punishment. Second, the professional must plan for unintended consequences associated with reinforcement and punishment. McComas, J. J., Smith, R. G., McSweeney, F. K., & Murphy, E.

(In preparation). Dynamic changes in reinforcer value: Theoretical, methodological, and practical. D.T. Cerutti, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Operant–Pavlovian Interactions. Conditioned reinforcers and conditioned punishers can be generated by Pavlovian procedures.

For example, if an odor is paired with food, the odor will elicit salivation as a CS but it can also serve as a conditioned reinforcer for an operant response.

The reduced value of an activity following the removal of a reward contingency can be considered as a behavioral contrast effect within the context of the operant perspective. Contrast effects occur when the value of rewards change from some previous reward contingency level experienced by the individual (Adamson, ).

Behavioral contrast was produced in two target components of a four-component multiple schedule by having two target stimuli followed either by a higher rate of reinforcement or by extinction. Response rate was higher in the target followed by extinction. Periodic probe trials were then presented in which the two target stimuli were presented together.

reinforcement. Brethower & Reynolds () produced contrast by introducing punishment in the varied component while holding the rate of reinforcement constant. Responding was suppressed during the varied component, but increased during the constant component as a function of *Reprints rnav be ordered from Thomas J.

Coates, Learning and. Fig. 2 presents response patterns in the first half of the session for individual subjects in the 5% sucrose group responding in the constant conditions. It shows that these patterns tended to differ as a function of upcoming reinforcer. Fig.

2 was constructed as was Fig. se rates tended to increase more steeply when food-pellet, rather than sucrose, reinforcement was upcoming. behavioral contrast. Dougan and colleagues (, ) found experimental support for the.

matching theory of behavioral contrast, asserting that the magnitude of contrast varied as a function of baseline reinforcement rate. Habituation Theory. Habituation theory is the newest attempt to describe contrast.

Habituation can be defined. The contrast is that you have observed a difference in the frequency/magnitude etc. of the behavioral repertoire in different environments. If the no demand environment changed to be equivalent with the other, you would likely see similar responding.

So it’s not one environment causing responses in the other, it’s a lack of impetus to act. Abstract (NOVEMBER) BEHAVIORAL CONTRAST AS A FUNCTION OF THE DURATION OF AN IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING PERIOD OF EXTINCTION1 R.

WILTON AND R. CLEMENTS UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS For four pigeons key-peck responding was reinforced on a variable-interval reinforcement schedule in the presence of a vertical white line. Accidental reinforcement: an instance in which the delivery of a reinforcer happens to coincide with a particular response, even though that response was not responsible for the reinforcer presentation.

Also called adventitious reinforcement. This type of reinforcement was considered to be responsible for “superstitious” behavior. Adventitious reinforcement same as accidental reinforcement.

Williams, B. Behavioral contrast and reinforcement value. Animal Learning & Behavior, 19, Williams, B. Behavioral contrast redux. Animal Learning & Behavior, 30, Author's Note These data were submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy for the first author.

Operant conditioning, sometimes called instrumental learning, was first extensively studied by Edward L. Thorndike (–), who observed the behavior of cats trying to escape from home-made puzzle boxes.

A cat could escape from the box by a simple response such as pulling a cord or pushing a pole, but when first constrained, the cats took a long time to get out.

Motivating Operations. An establishing operation (EO) is a motivating operation that increases the value of a reinforcer and increase the frequency in behavior that provides access to the reinforcer (Cooper, Heron & Heward,p.

An example of an EO is skipping lunch and having an empty stomach. By being hungry it increases the value of food and increases the behaviors that gain access. Behavioral Contrast. When a subject has been reinforced for two different behaviors and reinforcement for one behavior is withdrawn in order to extinguish it, the other behavior is likely to increase.


THOMAS AND G. CAMERON UNIVERSITY OF STIRLING. Type of behavioral contrast ; Anticipatory contrast occurs when the rate of. response varies inversely with an upcoming (“anticipated”) change in the rate of.

reinforcement – Pigeons increased responding for reinforcement. when they were presented with a stimulus. signaling that extinction was imminent.

– Job seems better when people. Terry W. Belke, RUNNING AND RESPONDING REINFORCED BY THE OPPORTUNITY TO RUN: EFFECT OF REINFORCER DURATION, Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, /jeab, 67, 3, (), ().

An experimental design consisting of (1) an initial baseline phase (A) until steady state responding (or countertherapeutic trend) is obtained, (2) an initial intervention phase in which the treatment condition (B) is implemented until the behavior has changed and steady state responding is obtained, (3) a return to baseline conditions (A) by withdrawing the independent variable to see whether.

Functions of Behavior Attention: The individual engages in behavior in order to receive attention from those in the environment (parents, teacher, siblings, peers). Attention functions as a reinforcer because it increases the individual’s behavior that has, in the past, resulted in attention.

speed and accuracy of responding. Example: A. A negative reinforcer also strengthens a behavior, but it does so by eliminating something that is unwanted.

For example, in the Skinner’s box, if a mild current were turned on in the electric grid that runs through the floor of the box, and if this current were turned off only when the rat depressed the lever, turning off the current would be an example of an aversive stimulus serving as a.

When a subject is responding in an operant situation, behavior can and will change as a function of changing reinforcement rates. The level of operant behavior that a given rate of reinforcement will maintain in a situation is usually affected by the amount of reinforcement obtained in other situations.

When a subject’s performance, maintained. Additive summation by stimulus compounding irrespective of behavioral contrast during discrimination training: An investigation with positive reinforcement and avoidance schedules, Learning & Behavior,pp.Volume 3, Issue 4, DOI: /BF Christopher E.


This in the context of a history of reinforcement according to the fixed-ratio 10 schedule yields a pattern of pausing (not responding) immediately after a reinforcer, followed by a high rate of responding to the next reinforcer.

Reinforcers also can serve a third function: that of what is called inducing responding. When there is a period of. REINFORCEMENT. The most effective way to teach a person or animal a new behavior is with positive reinforcement. In positive reinforcement, a desirable stimulus is added to increase a behavior.

For example, you tell your five-year-old son, Jerome, that if he cleans his room, he will get a toy. food reinforcement on one key and ectostriated brain stimulation as the reinforcer on the other kev.

Behavior­ al contrast was obtained by establishing baseline on concurrent VI 1 VI 1 schedule of reinforcement. When one ply (food) was changed to VI 10', there was a concommitant increase in the response rate to the unchanged VI 1 ply. the respondent (stimulus-reinforcer) contributions to the determination of an ostensibly operant response latency.

Stimuli associated with each FR component were displayed on one key (stimulus key) while responding for reinforcement was required on a second key (constant key). Components were separated by a 5 s intertrial interval. This experiment was conducted to test the predictions of two behavioral-economic approaches to quantifying relative reinforcer efficacy.

The normalized demand analysis suggests that characteristics of averaged normalized demand curves may be used to predict progressive-ratio breakpoints and peak responding. By contrast, the demand analysis holds that traditional measures of relative reinforcer.

McSweeney FK. Positive and negative contrast as a function of component duration for key pecking and treadle pressing. J Exp Anal Behav. Mar; 37 (2)– [PMC free article] McSweeney FK, Melville CL.

Behavioral contrast for key pecking as a function of component duration when only one component varies. J Exp Anal Behav.Lattal () found behavioral contrast when responding in the constant component was reduced by 56 and 95% of its unpunished rate for the two pigeons studied, and Reynolds and Catania () found behavioral contrast when constant component responding was maintained by differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedules.Taken together with the results of Nevin et al.

(), the present findings suggest that behavioral contrast can not be taken as evidence that the unchanged reinforce ment schedule (and its correlated stimulus) has an in creased "value" as a result of the lower reinforcement rates in the surrounding components of the schedule.

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